Beautiful 19th century surveying instruments. In the 18th and 19th centuries, surveyors were important people, responsible for tracing the lines needed to map cities, dig canals, build roads and lay down railway lines in a rapidly industrialising world. Their most precious possessions were their surveying instruments like theodolites, tacheometers and levels. These instruments weren’t just highly accurate measuring tools, they were artfully crafted too.
The lake of Zurich water treatment plant "Moos" was built 100 years ago. It was the second plant built after the great outbreak of typhus in Zuerich in 1884. It has fast and slow sand filters. Which are now beeing replaced by membrane filters.
The X-ray tube opened the path to visualise the inner parts of the body. More machines entered the field of medcine, a pedal driven dental drill, prosthetic arms or lung machines.
In 1931, Auguste Piccard reached a record altitude of 15,781 m (51,775 ft). Jacques Piccard explored the deepest part of the world's ocean using the Bathyscaphe "Trieste". The Ben Franklin-Grumman/Piccard PX-15 mission investigated the secrets of the Gulf Stream at depths of 600 - 2000 feet and 1444 nautical miles. Now Piccards's Mésoscaphe PX-8 has been restored.
Electrosuisss was founded in 1889. It is an accredited and internationally recognised test laboratory, who conducts neutral and independent tests of electrical and electronic equipment and components.
The dream of unrestricted mobility on land, water and in the air has always been the driving force behind technological inventions and original utopias. On show at the Vienna Technical Museum are Austria’s oldest railway, which was still horse-drawn at the time, the breakneck flying machines of aviation’s early pioneers, and the most successful racing car of the post-war period.
The Vogler Collection on the history of windows contains a selection of timber windows, fanlights as well as shutters, stained and painted glass windows and factory-made types. There is a representative host of handles and fasteners.
Metallic 3D printing (SLM) can be used to produce complex spare parts or to invent new products getting ideas from old patents. New constructions reduce the number of parts. It is close to biomimetics or biomimicry. Selective laser melting requires new expertise in construction.
The Schlörwagen was an experimental vehicle that caused quite a stir in 1939. Its aerodynamic performance, expressed as its drag coefficient (Cd value), was a mere 0.186, and therefore a real sensation. Modern cars possess Cd values of between 0.24 and 0.3 and therefore do not come close to the Schlörwagen's perfectly tailored aerodynamic shape. Only modern experimental vehicles such as the Volkswagen ‘1-litre car’ or the ETH Zürich 'PAC-Car II' have lower Cd values. But unlike these models, the Schlörwagen could fit seven people – something of a family vehicle.
EMPA, the Laboratory for Acoustics & Noise Control at the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials & Technology was founded 1961 by Franz Max Osswald. For his research he used an enhanced method of highspeed Schlierenphotography.
The Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt, the Städel Museum, and the Liebieghaus Skulpturensammlung are launching a completely new digital education format with their digitorial: Key exhibition contents are made easily accessible to all visitors interested in preparing their tour through the museum on a responsive website. The multimedia linkage of image, sound, and text ensures a multiple interweaving of contents. The first digitorial was conceived for the exhibition “Helene Schjerfbeck” on show at the Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt. The idea could be used for any exhibition.
The histrory of washing from the Sumer via the Greeks, the Romans, the Middle Ages up tu modern times. The cover shows a Roman cloth press.
During the Belle Époque existed well above the Lake of Lucerne the Grand Hôtel Axenstein, served by a cogwheel railway.
A small maize mill powered by a 10 kW power station is controlled by sensors and a computer.
Waste paper can be used to produce sponges which can fast take up oil and stay floated on water.
The Swiss Tectonic Arena Sardona displays an exceptional example of mountain building through continental collision and displays a clear example of tectonic thrust, i.e. the process whereby older, deeper rocks are carried onto younger, shallower rocks. This Unesco world heritage site has been a key site for the geological sciences.
The corn mill of 1813 at Calonico (Switzerland) has been restored. The simple construction needs no gear. The wodden turbine is compared with a modern Pelton turbine.
At Frankfurt/Main there is a retrospective of the work of painter Emild Nolde. Here presented with a canal in Copenhagen and a bridge.
3D printing with metal (additive process) can be used for the production of complex spare parts.
In Myanmar many traditional crafts are still alive. Around 15 crafts are described and illustrated.
On the five Channel Islands between England and France there are lighthouses, WW2 bunkers, castles, signal masts, mills, a shipyard converted into a shopping centre and several museums. The pallotmuseum includes cars, locomobiles, organs, diving suits and a railway. At St Helier the famous steam clock rests between the chimneys of the "Ariadne". Little Sark once had a silver mine. Its two chimneys and part of the building can still be seen.
From the past to the future: Albrecht Dürrers drawing of 1495 introduces the Brenner transport connection between Innsbruck and Bozen in Southern Tyrolia.
Flying across towns using thermophotography reviews energy saving spots among historic buildings.
Londons Underground station Embankment has a 144 years old cast iron structure. It has been strengthend using carbon fibre sheets 4.7 mm thick, 200 mm width and 7.3 m in length.
The international exhibition 1914 in Lyon France had among other pavillons of Russia, China and Germany. After the outbreak of WW1 the German site was closed.
Restoring inhabited houses with reduced noise could significally shrink the cost of restoration due to the king of Narmer (old Egypt) 3000 years ago. His warriors had clubs made of stone and drilled by heating and water droplets. Today we could use Laser and inkjets fed by water.
In 1816 Louis Moinet built a chronometer for his astronomical measurements. One revolution of the long hand is 1 second. He built pendulum clocks for kings and queens and people like Napoleon and Thomas Jefferson, his clock is still in the White House. Within 20 years he wrote the famous two volumes "Traité d'Horologerie".
Using a Blériot XI plane, on the 13th July 1913 the Swiss Oskar Bider first crossed the alps from Berne to Milano. Using an 80 hp rotary engine with a rotating cylinder block produced by Gnôme et Rhône Paris.
A windmill which existed on a logo became a real windmill in our days using modern technology for heating and ventilation. It is used for grinding salt and a convention centre together with a former farmhouse.
The famous painter Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn produced more than 350 drawings among them bridges, boats and his famous windmill 1641.
This year the chemical company Bayer of Leverkusen in Germany is 150 years old.
Conserving and restoring historic textiles at the famous Abegg-Foundation with its exhibition, collection, education and research.
The "Roskolde 6" is a Viking war ship of a lenght of 37 m.
The bycicle industry in Germany had an number of suppliers. A diagram shows how they worked together.
The history of container transport starts with Malcom Pursell McLean and his US-patent from September 30th, 1958. China dominates today this business, the US comes second. A diagram produced by Members of the University of Sheffield (UK) shows this in very drastic way.
Archaeochemistry and its metals in archaeological finds concludes this issue.
On three sites Roman organs were found. The biggest discovery was at Aquincum in Budapest (Hungary). A number of reconstructions have been built. The closest to an original functional Roman water organ was built by the groupe Musica Romana at Wasserburg (Germany).
Replacing hydraulics, heating and air-conditioning in an old building is extremely costly. In apartment buildings the cost is prohibitiv high. In order to achieve a low energy building the cost rises to three times of a newly built house.
Up to the 17th November the History Museum of Berne (Switzerland) houses a large Chinese Exhibition about Qin the First Emperror and his terra-cotta army. The article explains how the terra-cotta figures were constructed and what colors the Ancient Chinese used.
The first underground railway on the continent of Europe was built in 1896 in Budapest. The worlds first Underground was the Metropolitan in London, built 1863.
The Romans kitchen machine was the hand mill. A quarry has been found in Switzerland where the mill stones were cut. The same quarry was also used for cutting building stones.
The water system of Petra (Jordan) has recently been investigated by archaeologists. For their supply they used a system of canals and pipes. But the pipes made of clay could not withstand greater pressure, so they had to use a number of equalising basins. There is a saying that more people have lost their lives in floods in the deserts than on sea. Against sudden flooding the inhabitants of Petra had to guard themselfs. Their engineers built a system of basins which are divided in the middle by a vertical wall.
There are only a few professionals who understand thorougly how to restore old machines and often they are confronted with surprises. The American engineer Rider solved in middle of the 19th century the problem. How to integrate the centrufugal control mechanism into the overall control of a steam engine. A vertical steam engine made by Sulzer using a Rider control system has recently been found in Switzerland, date 1861.
Le Corbusier, the famous architect, spoke 1921 of the "machine à habiter". However this development started much earlier in the 19th century. Today we are still faced with the fact that the live of of a building is much longer than the techniques we employ in heating, water supply and information systems. We are able to fly to the Mars, but drilling or cutting in concrete below a noise level of 35 dB (A) is still not available.
Abandoned industrial sites must be reused.
In the Swiss canton Valais the rainfall per year is very low. Water management goes back to the Roman times. But new techniques have been developed around the 13th century which are still used today.
The Black Forest town of Calw had two important trades producing woolen cloth and timber floating for the dutch ship yards. 1/3 of this protestant towns cloth were sold to northern Italy and the Vatican. Calws tannery museum has a unique leather area measuring machine.
The former bicycle manufacturer Expresswerke at Neumarkt in Germany was once the largest bicycle manufaufcturer on the Continent.
Southern Tyrol has developed a unique system of presenting historic cable cars and agricultural equipment. It was 170 years ago when Josef Riehl an ingenieur and builder of railway lines and power stations was born at Bozen in Southern Tyrol.
The baroque theatre of Ludwigsburg castle in Germany was built 1758. The stage machinery, as well as thunder, rain sound and wind equipment are explained. Unique is an old much visited fairy-tale lane with animated figures and a historic playground with rebuilt equipment.
The former military town of Ludwigsburg had a large military bakery which is now used as a hotel.
A lage article deals with the interchange of chemistry and criminology during history.
Pécs in southern Hungary is a former mining town and the home of the famous Zsolnay architectural ceramics factory. Pécs name during the Austrian-Hungerien Monarchy was Fünfkirchen (five churches). The great architect Ödön Lechner used Zsolnay ceramics for his various buildings in Budapest. The old part of Pécs hosts the underground mining museum and the Zsolnay museum. On the outskirts of the town whithin the historic part of the Zsolnay factory there is the Zsolnay Cultural Quater. Up in the Mecsek mountains is the large open coal mine Karolina, a mining village and the Széchenyi pit.
Today in Switzerland there exists about 10 tanneries. The oldest is the Zeller tannery at Steffisburg. During history a number of tannin were developed and with the industrialisation specialised machines appeared on the market.
Steffisburg near Thun in the canton of Berne consists of three distinct parts: The railway station with small industries, the Lower Village with ist former brewery, the former tile factory and the still existing tannery. The Upper Village with church and houses of the upper class. The railway line was the first fully electrified in Europe.
The Technoseum in Mannheim (Germany) is one of a few museums in Europe which understands how to draw benefits from its vast collection of historic machines for schools, leading over to learning in modern times.
Restoration: Where can historic industrial buildings or objects be found? That is still a question but increasingly the question arises how to restore or reuse those objects and to what degree. How to preserve them? What methods are used for analysis and conservation? Many methods are already used in other fields e.g. forensics or art. Paint analysis using cross sections is one of many methods. The Technoseum at Mannhein is one of the leading museums in Germany concentrating on restoring and displaying historic industrial objects.
Ny-Alesund at Svalbard (78° 55' N, 11° 56' E) was up to 1963 a coal mining settlement. Today it is used as an international arctic research station. From the time of Amundsen there are remains of an airship mooring mast and part of the mining railway can still be seen.
The process technology of rubbers for erasing pencil marks are presented.
A 20 year old prototype of a bicycle lift in Norway explains pro and cons.
Railway tracks are generally laid on a bed of stone or track bed. After WW2 machines are used for maintenance.
Israel and Palestine: Ancient copper mines in Timna (Negev desert), salt harvesting from the Dead Sea, railways, 50 year old Japanese looms still in operation in Hebron, glass manufacturers at Hebron, an ancient underground quarry in Jerusalem and corn mills at the Golan hights. Within the ruins of Avdat (Negev desert) an ancient wine press can be found.
The development of the gold industry in Russia was different from Europe for it started with hard rock mining and then moved to gold sand mining from rivers. A map shows the vast gold sand reserves of Russia. Diagrams explain the production process.
The watertower built 1911 on the Margaret island of Budapest is now used for small exhibitions.
All historic SPAs (fürdö) of Budapest follow a geological fault zone along the river Danube. Some of the SPAs go back to the Osman Empire (Rudas SPA and Kiraly SPA). Close to the Széchenyi SPA there ist a merry-go-round, dating from 1906 and a wooden roller coaster from 1922.
The founder of the famous Ganz Company in Budapest was a Swiss citizen from Embrach (canton Zürich). His original foundry is now a museum explanig the making of the mold for casting his patend railway wheels by the chilled cast iron process. Two Griffin cupola furnances are protected.
Budapest has two important historic railway stations, a cog railway, a cable railway, a suburban railway (HEV), a metro (2nd oldest in the world) and Europe's largest railway open air park.
The last manufacturer of wooden chip boxes in Switzerland has closed down. The process of production is explained.
The hydraulic ram is a cyclic water pump that takes in water at one hydraulic head (pressure) and flow rate and outputs water at a higher hydraulic head and lower flow rate. It requires no outside source of power other than the kinetic energy of water. Sometines it is used in remote areas or could be used to drive a fountain, etc. The vessel containing air cushions the hydraulic pressure shock, when the waste valve closes. With a minimum of maintenance (replacing the gasket) the life time of a hydraulic ram exceeds 100 years.
The history of the pencil starts around the middle of the 16th century when a large graphite deposit was discovered in Cumbria, England. The production process involves a great number of steps and special machines as used at the Eberhard Faber Factory at Neumarkt, Germany.
The assembly line developed for the Ford Model T had an immense influence on the world. In order to realise this the preassembly conditions were the production of interchangeable parts, special machine tools and use of gravity for feeding the three lines.
Air traffic control started in Switzerland with the Marconi Radio AG in 1922 at Münchenbuchsee. Today the air traffic controller uses stripless computer control of the latest generation at his workplace.
Modern Architects could much learn from historic market halls, regarding light, logistics, air circulation and hygiene. Examples are Stockholm and Budapest as well as the London Smithfield and the Paris Halles Centrales.
Budapest, the capital of Hungary has 9 bridges crossing the Danube. Budapest is, historically considered, two towns. Buda with its castle und famous museums on top of the hill are on the one side of the Danube, Pest with the parlament and the old town on the other side. The most important 3 bridges are close to the centre. The green painted Freedom Bridge (the former Franz Josef Bridge) is the most beautiful and most original of the three. The white painted new bridge bears the name of the empress Elisabeth. The Chain Bridge is the best known of Budapest. At the end of WW2 the retreating German forces destroid on 16th January 1945 all 9 bridges.
Discovering the industrial heritage of Copenhagen by free bicycles, bus, S-train, metro and DSB-train throws an unexpected light on the Danish capital. The first train of Denmark between Copenhagens main station and Roskilde station run 1847. Roskilde is world famous for its catherdral and burial place of 39 kings and queens. The buildings of the 3 earlier power stations can still be seen. The very large electricity power station H.C. Oerstedvaerk built in 1918/20 and still further extendet until today has in its DieselHouse the famous B&W 8 cylinder diesel engine built 1932 with 22'500 HP. Uniscrap is a large recycling company founded in 1858 with an interesting building where the CEO can view its scrap yard from his office. The craft town of Vaerkstedvej Valby consists of 47 small companies and has been awarded by the Danish Cultural Heritage Authority for its architecture and concept. The water tower of Henkel Scandinavia can be seen from afar. Lot of old warehouses have been converted into different new uses: The Foreign Ministry, the Education Ministry, the Danish Architecure Centre, the Royal Cast Collection and the famous Hotel 71 Nyhavn. Christianshavn with its Frelsers Church is the bithplace of Danish shipbuilding going back to the 15th century. Very famous is the cran of 1748/51 at Holmen and the former shipbilding company B&W with its huge buidling of 65 m in height an 124 m in length. Noteworthy is the Kings Silk Manufacturing now used for offices and the Lightship XVII at Nyhavn.
The Swiss Military Museum has now added a hall for its large collection of WW2 tanks among them several T-34 Sowjet built tanks. It must be remebered that Hitler came to power legally by a majority of 51.9 % of German voters. The T-34 is a simple and well constructed tank with a good quality diesel engine. The Sowjets built about 54'600 T-34 tanks, including 19'400 T-34/85.
The history of gold leaf can be traced back to 5000 BC in India. The German "capital" for the goldbeater trade was Nueremberg. The former GDR had just one gold leaf manufacturer at Dresden. Using a spring hammer and a rolling mill before goldbeating with a hammer. For the equestrian statue at Dresden an area of 40 m2 was used for gilding, equal to 140 g of gold. Even today there are many applications and techniques used for gold laefing.
At Friedrichshafen (Lake of Constance) can be found a crane from 1830.
A rare Zuppinger Waterwheel from 1881 can be found at Heimenhausen, still driving a saw mill.
A flying replica of a Blériot XI from 1909 has been on display at the anniversary "100 years of Swiss aviation". This was the first aircraft of the tiny Swiss airforce.
Painters of industrial scenes are exhibited at the Ruhr 2010. The former goods railway station of Zürich shows an exhibition of wooden human figures.
A Zeppelin rigid airship is designed for minimum weight and maximum strength. The LZ127 Graf Zeppelin and LZ129 Hindenburg operated a regular passenger service beween Frankfurt and the USA or Brazil. Zeppelins were also used as bombers during World War I. However they were very vulnerable to gun fire. Therefore their main use was for reconnaissance.
An injector, ejector or steam injector is a pump that uses the Venturi effect. Water, air or steam draws the suction fluid into the outlet where they mix.
The Fabrica de Harinas at Salamanca is one of the most important preserved historic flour mill of Spain. The roller mills in this factory manufactured by Bühler Uzwil Switzerland replaced centuries-old technology of millstones and paved the way for industrial-size grain mills.
The Rittner Railway at Bozen (Southern Tyrolia) had three functions: as a tramwy in Bozen town, as a mountain rack railway and still in operation on the Ritten plain the narrow gauge transport system using different historic railway carriages.
Just before the outbreak of WW2 the Polish Cipher Bureau gave all their knowledge in decrypting the German Engima to parties from France and Britain. Two weeks before WW2 began, the London based Government Code and Cipher School moved to Bletchley Park. Listening stations all around the UK gathered the signals and were sent to Bletchley Park. Bletchley Park is known for breaking the Enigma messages but also more important for breaking the code used by the German High Command. The intelligence produced at Bletchley Park named «Ultra» contributed greatly to the Allied successes in several war zones. The Germans never discovered the activities that where going on at Bletchley.
Flat Glass production at Sudimir Oblast Kaluga Russia 1913/14. Until the 16th century flat glass war cut from large disks as shown by the drawings of Diderot. Larger sheets were made by blowing cylinders which was then cut and flattened. The Sievert process mechanised this at Sudimir. This process was later succeed first in Belgium by the Fourcault vertical pulling process. Today 95 % of the float glass production is produced according to the Pilkington process.
Saurer boat engines revolutionised at the end of the 19th century the whole commercial shiptransport industry in Switzerland.
The Round Tower (Rundetårn) of Copenhagen was errected by King Christian IV in 1642 as an observatory. Up to 1861 it had on its top a great variety of buildings. The Round Tower's first astronomer was Christan Sørensen Longomontanus. He was a pupil of Tycho Brahe, the great astronomer who died 1601 in Prague. Under King Frederik II Tycho Brahe built his own observatory on the island of Ven (Hven). Today the observatory on top of the Round Tower stems from 1929.
1) Elsinore converts a dry dock into the new danish maritime museum. The former shipyard will be reused as a culture yard, the new central library, a theatre and concert hall. Close to the world heritage site of Kronborg Castle. From the impressive main station to the remains of the Kronborg weapons factory at Hellebaek are only a few miles by a modern local train.
2) Bristol harbour reaches 200 years. The floating harbour, made up of Avon New Cut and Feeder Canal was opened on 1 May 1809, and was created by civil engineer William Jessop. Today the waterways play a vital part in the city's cultural life, and generate vital income through tourism and leisure activities. It was Britain's second-busiest port during the early 18th century, but the tide of 10 m increasingly caused problems for ships inside the harbour. The New Cut, Feeder Canal and Cumberland Basin were all dug by more than 1000 travelling labourers, mostly from Ireland. The harbour once had over 40 cranes for unloading ships, only seven survive. One of them designed by William Fairbairn. The Underfall Yard has an ingenious slipway with cradle by Thomas Morton patented 1850. In order to clean the water of the Floating Harbour a «Green Machine» has been invented. The first railway station designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel in 1843 still remains at Temple Meads Station.
3) The famous Swiss Saurer vehicle company built around 1940 battery driven lorries.
4) Luzern has a full 360° panorama which has been restored using an innovative suspension by magnets and tension system for the picture by the artist Edouard Castres. At the end of the German-French war of 1870/71 the French East-Army of 87'000 men fled into Switzerland. The lower part of the panorama was from 1926 onwards occupied by a circular car park using a turn table.
1) The Nivaagaard Teglvaerk has a continous kiln for brickmaking. The German Friedrich Hoffmann invented the ring oven and got it patented in 1858. Denmarks oldest circular ring oven and presumably the world's completely remaining oven of this kind is 32 km north of Copenhagen at Nivaa. The function of a circular oven or an oval oven are exactly the same. A drawing explains its function in detail. It is built for the very efficient use of energy. Normally it is fired with coal dust from the top of its tunnel. At Nivaagaard there are the remains of a late tunnel oven, drying sheds and a forge.
2) The SS Great Britain at Bristol was the first ocean going and propeller driven steam ship made entirely of iron. Constructed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel it was intended to serve on the Atlantic route, but was mostly used from Liverpool to Melbourne, Australia. With favourable winds the ship travelled under sail alone. In this case the screw being withdrawn from the water by a lift mechanism. The engines are now completely rebuilt and the hull preserved by a glass plate, keeping the space beneath at 20% humidity to prevent further corrosion.
3) BMW today known as a major automobile and motorcycle company started as a sole manufacturer of aero engines. It was a BMW engines which on 17th June 1919 propelled Franz Diemer to an altitude of 9760 meters (-50° Celsius and low oxygen levels). A mechanical computer allowed the pilot on further developed engines to control the engine by one lever.
4) The grain storage building at Basel Rhine Port was designed by the architect Hans Bernoulli and the engineer Oskar Bosshardt in 1923. The building is of steel-reinforced concrete. Bricks insulate the silo of 105 cells. The building is strongly based on the fundamental rule of form follows function as the sectional drawings reveal.
1) The Carlsberg Brewery at Copenhagen-Valby with its famous Elephant tower, its visitor center and its chimney from 1900 has now closed down its production for a new site at Fredericia at Denmarks Jutland peninsula. The Valby site will be redeveloped in the coming years as an entierly new part of Copenhagen.
2) Silk played a special role in Switzerlands Canton Ticino. The breeding of silkworms belonged to one of the most important branches of economic activity in the second half of the 19th century. And the estate owners of Novazzano (the house now rebuilt at the scansen of Ballenberg) did not let this lucrative business pass them by. A large part of the land was planted with mulberry trees, the sole food of the silk producing caterpillar. The circle starts with the eggs, then the caterpillar, the cocoon and the moth. To stop the moths from emerging and making holes in the cocoons they need to be killed off early on by hot water. 5-30 strands of silk fibres are twisted together to form an actual silk thread. At the scansen in the building Therwil there is a demonstration of a special working loom of a home ribbon wavers family, producing 40 ribbons on one machine.
3) Transporter Bridge at Osten between Hamburg and Cuxhaven. The transporter bridge is now 100 years old.
4) The cranes at the West Port of Berlin still survive from the first half of the 20th century. They have now been recorded using a laser scanner.
1) Switzerland has approx. 50 important historic hotels. Three of them are closely examined, especially its technical structure. The Giessbach Hotel close to the famous Giessbach falls has its own funicular which passes five steel bridges. There are two wooden cars dating from 1879. It is the oldest funicular still operating in Europe. Detailed diagrams show the complicated rope drive. If two cars use the same track, the simple solution is the siding: Car 1 has double-flanged wheels on the left side and flat wheels on the right side. Car 2 has double-flanged wheels on the right side and flat wheels on the left side. The double- flanged wheels force the car to follow the external and continous rail.
The Hotel Europe at Engelberg built 1902 has large historic cylinder blown window glass (blown, then reheated and flattened). Engelberg is famous for its Benedictine monastry whith the largest organ of Switzerland. In 1898 a narrow gauge railway was built connecting the Lake Lucerne at Stansstad to Engelberg. At Obermatt a hydroelectric power station was built to supply power for the railway. Pressure pipes from 1905 are still in operation.
The Bürgenstock Hotels are connected by a funicular to the Lake Lucerne. A diagram explains the rope drive.
2) Sectional drawings and photographs explain gas turbines and aircraft motors developed by the Saurer company.
3) The conversion of a weaving mill into loft apartements by a pioneer for revitalising former factories shows how to make use of the full factory floor by adding the bathrooms, toilets and stairs on the outside of the building.
4) The collection of steam engines at the Vaporama Thun near Berne is in difficulties because it cannot stay any longer at the present location. A fact which has been kown for years. A number of objects collected are not in line with its core business and should be abandoned with. Also, instead of restoring small boilers the collection should concentrate on a central steam supply from an integrated power station at a permanent location.
5) The conversion of gas holders in Dresden and Leipzig to large panoramas using large colour prints represents another good idea of how to reuse old gasometers.
1) The „10-22-38 ASTORIA“ marks the time and place were this first electrophotographic image was made. The process later called xerography. The inventor was Chester Carlson (1906-1968), a patent attorney. From 1939 to 1944 his invention was turned down by more than 20 companies. Finally, the Battelle Memorial Institute became interested. The Haloid company, Rochester (later Xerox) produced the first copier. The big sucess came with the 914 model. More than 200'000 systems were sold. In 1954 Haloid built a copier called Copyflo the price was 130'000 $.
2) The most famous member of the Fugger family was Jakob Fugger the Rich (1459 to 1525) they were merchants, a large mining company and bankers to Popes, Kings and Emperors. The network of the Fugger empire streched across Europe. The Fugger Company also traded with India, South America and Africa. Under Anton Fugger, the nephew and sucessor to Jakob Fugger, the company assets reached their highest level in 1546. In 1521 Jakob Fugger donated the now world famous „Fuggerei“, the oldest social settlement in existence in the world, together with the Fugger chapel in the church of St Anna Augsburg. An apartment in the „Fuggerei“ still has a rent of 1 Gulden per year, equals to 0.88 Euro today (without heating). Since the time of the Fugger, inhabitants are required to pray three prayers each day for the deceased members of the Fugger family. Fugger chapels can also be found in the Ulrich Basilica. The main line of the Fugger family has a coat of arms showing two lilies and a trademark with a fork plus a ring. The Fugger family still lives in Bavaria (Germany). There exists also a Fuggerbank.
3) The vine press at Ennetbaden has a pressbeam of 13 m in length. The section of one end measures 75 by 90 cm. The oack tree for this beam was cut in 1688 then it was 400 years old. The process of making vine is shown in 2 diagrams.
4) The Mattenlift was errected in 1897 by Siemens & Halske Berlin. It used to have two cars, but in 1920 it was changed to a one car system with counterweight saving one lift boy. According to Prussian tradition it still has a lift boy. The elevator is close to the cathedral of Berne.
5) Two-wheeled horse drawn battle cars of Egyptian times show a strong but lightweight construction. One of them is a chariot of state. These two-wheeled vehicles required a two-man crew: a driver and an archer. Images of Egyptian Pharaohs firing arrows at full gallop as they steer the chariot with reins wrapped round their hips are therefore quite far removed from reality.
1) The paddle steamer Rigi was produced 1847 by Ditchburn & Mare London (later Thames Iron Works). Due to a civil war in Switzerland from 3rd November to 29th November 1847 the delivery of the hull, the Penn engine and the boiler was interrupted. The launch of the Rigi took place 16th March 1848. For 104 years she transported goods and passengers on the Lake Lucerne. In 1952 she finally came to the end of her operations. Up to 2005 she served as a restaurant at the Swiss Transport Museum Lucerne. She is now restored back to 1873, with the exception of the engine and boiler. 1893 the Penn & Son engine and the boiler were replaced by an Escher Wyss steam engine and boiler. New paddles with excenters were also fitted at that time. Microscopic analysis showed that the original Escher Wyss engine was painted in green colors. The visitors will be able to access the restored paddle steamer Rigi by a footbridge from the first floor of the hall of shipbuilding. They can also see the hull from underneath. The Swiss Transport Museum at Lucerne can be reached by bus, railway or paddle steamer from the Lucerne main railway station.
2) The two old Rieter powers stations at Winterthur are now reused for generating electricity. The old turbine controls have been replaced by a new small hydraulic/electronic remotely operated control system. The old control system produced by Escher Wyss, Bell and Rieter have been preserved. The function of the N25 Escher Wyss control are described in full detail.
3) Ferries: The environmentally friendly crossing of rivers at Basel Switzerland and Rathen, Germany, east of Dresden.
4) The brewery Warteck in Basel with its huge water tower of 1872 has three beautiful stained glass windows. After its closure in 1990 it is now sucessfully reused as illustrated.
5) The UNESCO world heritage site at Saltaire and Titus Salts textile mill and reuse, his famous workers village, church, schools and the Institute conclude this issue.
1) Haarlem railway station. The current station was built between 1905 and 1908. It was elevated to make way for the traffic in the city. It is the only train station in the Nederlands that is built in Art Nouveau style. The first station was built in 1839 to accomodate the passengers of the first railwy in the Nederlands between Haarlem and Amsterdam.
2) The weaving museum Geldrop (Nederland) has old and modern working looms operated by pensioners. Every loom has a functional diagram for the visitor. A Sagebien waterwheel has been rebuilt. Geldrop was once a town of textile manufacturers. The museum owns a special historic loom which produces so called smeerkussens. They are used for lubrication together with whitemetal bearings.
3) The early years of engine and vehicle manufacturing at Saurer.
4) Early aircraft engines from Argus, MFO, Hispano, Saurer, Bühler, LFW, SLM and Gnôme et Rhone.
5) The search for alternative fuel in the 1930 and the results. The Imbert Generator. The Coreth fuel. The first alpine test: 2000 km and 20 mountain passes. The American White steam car ca. 1908.
6) The Klausen Races and the Memorials. The Memorial race track is 21.5 km long. Some of the highlights: Morgan V2 Three Wheeler from Britain, Alfa Romeo 8C 2900 Le Mans, the rebuilt Auto Union Grand Prix race car Typ C, Maserati 4 CL, Aston Martin Halford Special, Riley TT Sprite AVC 20, Bugatti TT 35C/51, Hudson 30 from 1909, American La France from 1914, Nazzaro Targa Floria from 1913, Opel racing car ca. 1905 and Delahaye 135 S from 1935.
1) The Ir D F Woudagemaal at Lemmer (Nederland) is the worlds lagest steamdriven pumping station, built 1920. Despite its age, it guarantees to pump 6% of the Province of Friesland's surplus of water into the IJsselmeer. Capacity 2520 H.P. and 4000 m3 water per minute. The disatvantage of a steamdriven station is its long heating up period. In the past it was 24 hours. Oil firing brought it down to 6 hours. The machines were built by Jaffa of Utrecht.
2) The production of the famous Swiss accordion and its tuning is a lengthy process involving great experience over many stages such as the manufacture of the melody and bass registers and bellow. The Eichhorn Company is able to equip the accordions with original DIX tones.
3) Industrial films from the period 1939-1959 give an insight into the hard working Swiss industry during WW2 and its following years.
4) The Camenzind Company is still producing spun silk in the former Republic of Gersau at the shore of the Lake Lucerne. The company's small power station is producing its own electricity.
5) The power station of Marling (Autonomus Province of Southern Tirolia, Italy) once produced the electricity for the tramways of Milano. Together with a visit to the power station, the irrigation system of Marling and the cycle paths, the Region of Meran adds another attraction for tourists.
6) The Brenner railway line which runs from Bozen to Innsbruck was opened 1867. Most of the stations are of architectural interest, e.g. the station of the fortress of Franzenfeste, Brixen, Klausen and the clock tower of Innsbruck The Bozen Station with its clock tower, built 1924 is a unique monument of railway architecture.
1) 25% of the Netherlands of today consists of land below sea level. This land has been reclaimed from the sea. First a dike is built around a large piece of water. Then the water is pumped out of a section of this large area. These pieces of land which then are created are called polders and can now be used for farming and industrial purposes. The actual definition of a polder is a piece of land below sea level surrounded by a dike. The draining can take place by a windmill or by mechanical pumps. Windmills drained the oldest areas and therefore Holland used to have over 10'000 windmills in the past. 70 of them remain today. A windmill can lift the water to a maximum of about 1m, to cope with a difference of over 3 m three windmills are placed in cascade. Kinderdijk has been added to the UNESCO world heritage list. The Kinderdijk milling complex consists of 8 stone brick windmills built in 1738, 8 thatched windmills built in 1740, 2 stone windmills of the polder Nieuw-Lekkerland built in 1760 and 1 windmill built in 1521 and burned down in 1997. Since that day the windmill has been restaured and has been operational since 2000.
2) Thwaite mills originally serviced the pottery industry, grinding flint and chinastone for use as pottery glaze. The other major product was whiting, produced by grinding chalk. Whiting was used in pharmaceuticals, polish and paint. During the First World War the Horns turned to barytes. Ground barytes were used in paint production. In 1923, demand for whiting fell and the Horns began using some of the excess to produce putty. This became Thwaite's main product until the closure in 1976. Each of Thwaites' products required their own pieces of equipment, but they all shared the same power source, the waterwheels. In 1931 the Raymond Mill was introduced to increase efficiency.This is a completely enclosed dry grinding system and occupies the full height of the building. It was driven by a Marshall semi-diesel engine as the waterwheels could not generate sufficient power. Usually when one process was abandoned the Horn's simply left the equipment where it stood, which is why so much has survived intact.
3) Küssnacht has a rebuilt bone mill, driven by a waterwheel. To demonstrate the mill it is operated by an electric motor.
4) In Moutathal a bell smith survives after 135 years. The bells produced are the famous Swiss cow bells.
5) It is not well known that the architect Le Corbusier was a technology enthusiast. He also built industrial buildings and made a proposal for a peoples car.
6) The remains of a tobacco mill are displayed in Schwyz
7) The Schwantenau is a peatland now protected and belonging to the canton Schwyz. It was a peat winning area with some cutover areas used once on an industrial basis and by individual farmers. A drawing shows a peat powder machine and photographs show a peat press.
1) The "Cruquius" steam pumping station is the only remaining of three pumping stations which drained the Haarlemmermeer in the Nederlands. It has the largest steam piston diameter in the world of 144" (3.664 m). All the 8 pumps are raised by one downward cylinder stroke (gravity).
2) In Switzerland, small historic electricity sub-stations are often an architects masterpiece of art embedded in beautifull landscapes.
3) The small former gasworks of the town of Schwyz still has a gasholder of the telescopic type.
4) The revival of the Vinschgau-Railway of Southern Tyrolia (Italy) with modern equipment is a great success story. It runs along its historic tracks and tunnels over a distance of 60 km from Meran to Mals. At the Mals station a unique five corner track is being preserved. It was used to turn around the locomotives.
5) The last article of this issue deals with "Waale" a historic water irrigation system found in the alpine regions. In the Autonomous Province Southern Tyrolia (Italy) there are plenty of "Waale" especially in the Vinschgau region. They have a unique alarm system: as long as the water flows, a bell rings operated by a small waterwheel.
1) Mountain Rack Railway "Brienz Rothorn Bahn" (Switzerland), system Roman Abt. The cover shows three steam powered trains between the stations Oberstafel and Planalp (see 7.6 km track on page 5). Three coal fired lokomotives from 1891 are still in operation. Two coal fired lokomotives are from the year 1933 and 1936. There are four oil fired steam locomotives from 1992-1996. 3 hydrostatic diesel engines of unique construction make the locomitives complete. The article has 30 pictures including an original sectional drawing of the 1891-locomotive and drawings explaining the different rack systems used in rack railways.
2) The article on the disused "Coal Mine of Beringen (Belgium)" includes 20 photographs and graphs plus one table. Some of the parts are now used by the Flamish Mine Museum (Vlaams Mijnmuseum). Beringen is one of seven coal mines in the Belgium part of Limburg. Each of them had an unusual large aerea of operation of approx. 4000 ha, compared with the coal mines in the 250 ha in the French part of Belgium.
3) "Kuba" deals with the industrial remains on this 1250 km long and 100 km wide island: an introduction to the history of Cuba; the railway museum of Cristina, a former railway station; Bejucal, the oldest railway station from 1837; the Hershey Railway, the only electric railway; the growing of tabac plants and its processing in the tabac factories; the Museo del Ron (Havanna Club), the sugar cane factories; the lighthouse of El Morro; Ernest Hemingway; the historic stone printing process still used by artists, a horse drawn fire engine built 1890 in the US; the lage "automobil museum" on todays streets and the small Auto Museum of Havanna; the architecture of the beautifull town of Trinidad and historic prints used on cigar boxes. (83 photographs and graphs, 2 tables).